Effects of Sexual Assault

Sexual assault is a personal and destructive crime. Its effects can be psychological, emotional, and/or physical, and they may be brief in duration or last a very long time. While there is not one "normal" reaction to sexual assault, here are some of the more common effects that sexual assault victims may experience.

Depression

There are many emotional and psychological reactions that victims of rape and sexual assault can experience. One of the most common of these is depression.

The term "depression" can be confusing since many of the symptoms are experienced by people as normal reactions to events in their life. At some point or another, everyone feels sad or "blue," and these feelings are perfectly normal, especially during difficult times. But, this also means that recognizing depression can be difficult since the symptoms can easily be attributed to other causes.

 

Depression becomes something more than just normal feelings of sadness when the symptoms last for more than two weeks.

Therefore, if you experience five or more symptoms of depression over the course of two weeks you should consider talking to a medical professional about what you are experiencing.

 

The symptoms for depression include:

  • Prolonged sadness or unexplained crying spells  
  • Change in appetite with significant weight loss (without dieting) or weight gain
  • Loss of energy, persistent fatigue or lethargy
  • Significant change in sleep patterns (insomnia, sleeping too much, fitful sleep, etc.)
  • Loss of interest and pleasure in activities previously enjoyed, social withdrawal
  • Feelings of worthlessness, hopelessness or inappropriate guilt
  • Pessimism or indifference  
  • Unexplained aches and pains (headaches, stomachaches)  
  • Inability to concentrate, indecisiveness
  • Irritability, worry, anger, agitation or anxiety  
  • Recurring thoughts of death or suicide

If you are having suicidal thoughts, don't wait to get help.

Call the Telephone Helpline at 877-995-5247 (the phone number is the same inside the U.S. or via the Defense Switched Network (DSN)), or the National Veterans Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 800-273-TALK (8255) at any time (Veterans press 1).

Depression can affect anyone of any age, gender, race, ethnicity, or religion. Depression is not a sign of weakness, and it is not something that someone can simply "snap out of."

Please note that content on this site does not constitute medical advice, and Safe Helpline is not a medical expert. If after reading this information you have further questions, please contact a local doctor or hospital.

Eating Disorders

Eating disorders are complex conditions that arise from a combination of long-standing emotional, psychological, interpersonal and social issues. People with eating disorders often use food and the control of food as an attempt to deal with or compensate for feelings and emotions that may otherwise seem overwhelming.1

Causes

Sexual assault or abuse can have an effect on the victim’s perceived body image and affect their eating habits. For some victims, self-starvation, bingeing and purging may begin as a way to cope with the trauma of the assault or to feel in control of a certain aspect of their lives. But, ultimately, the damage caused by eating disorders can worsen their physical and emotional health as well as their self-esteem.1


Factors stemming from sexual abuse that may result in an eating disorder include:1

  • Low self-esteem
  • Feelings of inadequacy or lack of control in life
  • Depression, anxiety, anger or loneliness
  • Difficulty expressing emotions and feelings

Help a Friend

While each situation is different, there are some general guidelines to consider if you know or suspect someone you love is suffering from an eating disorder:1

  • Set aside time to meet with your loved one to discuss your concerns openly, honestly and in a supportive way.

Avoid placing shame, blame or guilt on your loved one regarding his or her actions or attitude.

  • Stay away from accusatory statements; use words like “I feel,” “I wish,” “I hope.”
  • Remind your loved one that you care and want to support him or her in any way you can.

Eating disorders include:1

Anorexia Nervosa

A serious, potentially life-threatening eating disorder characterized by self-starvation and excessive weight loss.

  • Four primary symptoms: resistance to maintaining body weight, intense fear of weight gain, denial of the seriousness of low body weight, and loss of menstrual periods in girls/women
  • Warning signs include: dramatic weight loss, preoccupation with weight and food, refusal to eat certain foods, frequent comments about feeling “fat,” anxiety about gaining weight, denial of hunger, development of food rituals, consistent excuses to avoid mealtimes, rigid exercise regimen despite weather or fatigue, withdrawal from usual friends and activities
  • Health consequences: abnormally slow heart rate and low blood pressure, reduction of bone density (osteoporosis), muscle loss and weakness, severe dehydration, fainting, dry hair and skin

Binge Eating Disorder

Eating disorder characterized by recurrent binge eating without the regular use of compensatory measures to counter the binge eating.

  • Four primary symptoms: frequent episodes of eating large quantities of food in short periods of time, feeling out of control over eating behavior, feeling ashamed or disgusted by the behavior, eating when not hungry and eating in secret
  • Health consequences: high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, heart disease, diabetes mellitus, gallbladder disease

Bulimia Nervosa

Serious, potentially life-threatening eating disorder characterized by a cycle of bingeing and compensatory behaviors such as self-induced vomiting designed to undo or compensate for the effects of binge eating.

  • Three primary symptoms: regular intake of large amounts of food accompanied by a sense of loss of control over eating behavior; regular use of inappropriate compensatory behavior such as self-induced vomiting or laxative abuse or fasting; extreme concern with body weight and shape
  • Warning signs: disappearance of large amounts of food in short periods of time, frequent trips to the bathroom after meals, rigid exercise regimen despite weather or fatigue, unusual swelling of cheeks or jaw area, calluses on the back of the hands and knuckles, discoloration or staining of teeth, withdrawal from usual friends and activities
  • Health consequences: electrolyte imbalances that can lead to irregular heartbeats and possibly heart failure, inflammation and possible rupture of the esophagus from frequent vomiting, tooth decay and staining from stomach acids released during vomiting, chronic irregular bowel movements and constipation as a result of laxative abuse, gastric rupture

Get Help

The most effective and long-lasting treatment for eating disorders is a form of therapy or counseling, along with attention to medical and nutritional needs.

Each treatment will vary according to the patient’s particular issues, needs and strengths.1

  • Psychological counseling – a licensed health professional addresses both the eating disorder symptoms and the underlying forces that contributed (in this case, sexual assault)
  • Outpatient therapy – support groups, nutritional counseling and/or psychiatric medications under careful supervision  
  • Hospital-based care – necessary when an eating disorder has led to physical problems that may be life-threatening, or when it is associated with severe psychological or behavioral problems

If you or someone you know is having trouble with an eating disorder after a sexual assault, contact the Safe Helpline. For help online, visit the Online Helpline or call 877-995-5247 (the phone number is the same inside the U.S. or via the Defense Switched Network (DSN)).

Additional Resources

National Eating Disorders Association
The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
BodyImageHealth.org
Eating Disorders Anonymous

Please note that content on this site does not constitute medical advice and Safe Helpline is not a medical expert. If after reading this information you have further questions, please contact a local doctor or hospital.

Footnotes
  1. National Eating Disorders Association. 2009.
    http://www.nationaleatingdisorders.org/index.php

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

Survivors of sexual assault may experience severe feelings of anxiety, stress or fear known as Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), as a direct result of the assault.1 While it is natural to have some of these symptoms after a traumatic event, if they last more than a few weeks and become an ongoing problem, it might be PTSD.

The symptoms of PTSD can be grouped into three categories:1

Re-experiencing symptoms

  • May cause problems in everyday routine
    • Flashbacks – reliving the trauma over and over, including physical symptoms like racing heart or sweating
    • Bad dreams – subconscious memories of the event
    • Frightening thoughts – can be triggered by specific words, objects or situations

Avoidance symptoms

  • May cause the survivor to change his or her personal routine
    • Avoiding specific places, events or objects
    • Feeling emotionally numb
    • Feeling strong guilt, depression or worry
    • Losing interest in activities that were enjoyable in the past
    • Having trouble remembering the frightening event

Hyperarousal symptoms

  • May cause difficulty in completing daily tasks, such as sleeping, eating, or concentrating
    • Being easily startled
    • Feeling tense or “on edge”
    • Having difficulty sleeping, and/or having angry outbursts

Children and teens can have extreme reactions to trauma, and their symptoms may not be the same as adults.  Symptoms may include:1

  • Bedwetting
  • Inability to talk
  • Acting out the assault during playtime
  • Being unusually clingy with a parent or other trusted adult

To be diagnosed with PTSD, a doctor who has experience helping people with mental illnesses, such as a psychiatrist or psychologist, must speak with the survivor.1

Treatment

Contact Safe Helpline to be connected with military or civilian resources for PTSD treatment.  For help online, visit the Online Helpline or call 877-995-5247 (the phone number is the same inside the U.S. or via the Defense Switched Network (DSN)).

For more information, visit:
National Center for PTSD:  
http://www.ptsd.va.gov

If you know or suspect someone you love is suffering from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder:

  • Offer emotional support, understanding, patience and encouragement.
  • Learn about PTSD, including available recovery resources, so you can understand what your loved one is experiencing and help him or her seek help.

Remind your loved one that, with time and treatment, he or she can get better.

Please note that content in this site does not constitute medical advice and Safe Helpline is not a medical expert. If after reading this information you have further questions, please contact a local doctor or hospital.

Footnotes
  1. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).  National Institute of Mental Health.  2009.
    http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/post-traumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd/index.shtml

Self-Harm/Self-Injury

Deliberate self-harm, or self-injury, is when a person inflicts physical harm on himself or herself, usually in secret. Some victims of sexual assault may use self-harm to cope with the difficult or painful feelings, but it is only a temporary relief, not a healthy way to deal with the trauma of sexual assault. Self-harm can cause permanent damage to the body, as well as additional psychological problems that hinder the healing process, such as guilt, depression, low self-esteem or self hatred, along with a tendency toward isolation.1

Note: Deliberate self-harm is not necessarily inflicted with suicidal intent, and engaging in self-harm does not necessarily mean that someone wants to die.

What to Watch For

Those who inflict harm on themselves may believe it “helps” them cope with their experiences and their emotions.

For sexual assault victims, self injury may:1

  • Provide a way to express difficult or hidden feelings
    • It’s common for victims to feel numb or empty as a result of sexual assault
    • Engaging in self-harm may provide a temporary sense of feeling again, as well as a way to express anger, sadness, grief or emotional pain
  • Provide a way of communicating to others that support is needed
  • Provide a distraction from emotional pain
  • Provide self-punishment for what they believe they deserve
  • Provide proof that they are not invisible
  • Provide a feeling of control: It’s not uncommon to feel that self-harm is the only way to have a sense of control over life, feelings, body, especially if other things in life are out of control

Some common methods of self-harm include:1

Helping Someone You Know

Friends and family of sexual assault victims may be among the first to recognize the signs of self-injury. It may be helpful for a survivor to share their experiences and concerns with a qualified service provider who can help him or her find a healthier, positive alternative to alleviate the pain from sexual assault, such as a counselor or psychologist.1

  • It may be helpful for the survivor to have the help and support of a loved one while finding a counselor.
  • If the survivor feels that talking with someone is too overwhelming, you can urge him or her to write down the problem.

Alternatives

The following are alternatives to self-harm that may help you until you are able to meet with a professional:1

  • Recognize the choices you have NOW; ask yourself what YOU need.
  • Choose to put off self-harm for specific amounts of time until a professional can be contacted (e.g., 15 minute increments).
  • Countdown to relaxation (10… 9… 8… 7…), start meditation exercises, pay attention to your breathing and the rhythmic motions of your body.
  • Write in a diary or journal.
  • Make a list of people you can call for support, connect with others (group, one-on-one).
  • Plan something new and exciting to do with friends.
  • Take up a craft (needlework, quilting, painting, etc.).
  • Play video games, listen to the radio, watch television as a distraction.

It is important to eat well, exercise and be kind to oneself. While not a solution in itself, doing all these things can contribute to increased mood stability and a general better sense of well being that will provide a greater sense of happiness on the inside and outside.1

Get Help

If you or someone you know is contemplating self-harm, the Safe Helpline can help. For help online, visit the Online Helpline or call 877-995-5247 (the phone number is the same inside the U.S. or via the Defense Switched Network (DSN)).

If you or someone you know is contemplating suicide, call 911 immediately (in the U.S.). If there’s no one in your life that you feel comfortable talking to about your suicidal thoughts, call the National Veterans Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 800-273-TALK (8255) at any time (Veterans press 1).

Please note that content in this site does not constitute medical advice and Safe Helpline is not a medical expert. If after reading this information you have further questions, please contact a local doctor or hospital.

Sleep Disturbances

Many survivors of sexual assault suffer from depression and/or PTSD.  As a result, they may also experience sleep disturbances and disorders. Sleep can be difficult for trauma victims, as they may not feel secure and unthreatened.

Nightmares

Nightmares can result when an assault is replayed mentally and when there is a fear that it will reoccur. Nightmares typically involve feelings and emotions felt at the time of the assault or abuse, or immediately following, and can cause difficulty in falling asleep and staying asleep.1

Nightmares that occur after traumatic experiences may replicate the original dangerous or threatening situation.

  • Individuals may report multiple nightmares within a given night, often with a recurrent theme.
  • Nightmares usually end with an awakening of full alertness and a lingering sense of fear or anxiety.
    • If nighttime awakenings are frequent, or if the individual avoids sleeping because of fear that a nightmare will occur, the individual may experience the following:
      • Excessive sleepiness
      • Poor concentration
      • Depression
      • Anxiety
      • Irritability
  • This form of sleep disturbance is not diagnosed if the nightmares occur exclusively during the course of another mental disorder or is due to the direct effects of substance abuse (alcohol, drugs or medication) or a general medical condition.

Insomnia

Insomnia can be described as difficulty falling asleep, difficulty staying asleep, or waking up too early. These periods of restlessness can last a few nights or become chronic and last several months, or even years.2

Insomnia can be caused by:

  • Life events which cause physical, emotional or mental pain
  • Anxiety about falling asleep, stress
  • Medication (a possible side effect)
  • Environmental noise or extreme temperature changes
  • Herbs, caffeine, alcohol, or other substances

Physicians and therapists may suggest trying medication or behavioral techniques to improve sleep, such as relaxation therapy, sleep restriction, and reconditioning. For more information, contact your physician.

Sleep Terror

Sleep Terror Disorder occurs with repeated abrupt awakenings from sleep, usually beginning with a panicky scream or cry. During an episode, the individual is going through behavioral manifestations of intense fear and is difficult to awaken or comfort. After finally waking, the individual has no recollection of the event except perhaps a single image.1

  • During a sleep terror, the individual may actively resist being held or touched or even demonstrate more elaborate activity (swinging, punching, fleeing).
    • These behaviors appear to represent self-protection from a threat and may result in physical injury.
  • Sleep Terror Disorder may occur with an increased frequency in individuals with  PTSD  and Generalized Anxiety Disorder.
  • Many individuals suffer from isolated episodes of sleep terrors at some time in their lives. The distinction between individual episodes and Sleep Terror Disorder lies in the repeated occurrence and potential for self-injury.

Eating well, exercising and getting help for sleep disorders can be useful in treating them. An increased mood stability, and a general better sense of well-being will provide a greater sense of ease, and will make nighttime sleep a safe space once again.

Get Help

If you or someone you know is having trouble sleeping after a sexual assault, contact Safe Helpline.  For help online, visit the Online Helpline or call 877-995-5247 (the phone number is the same inside the U.S. or via the Defense Switched Network (DSN)).

Please note that content on this site does not constitute medical advice and Safe Helpline is not a medical expert. If after reading this information you have further questions, please contact a local doctor or hospital.

Footnotes
  1. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. American Psychiatric Association. 2000.
    http://www.psych.org/MainMenu/Research/DSMIV.aspx
  2. Sleepnet.com. 2009.
    http://www.sleepnet.com

Substance Abuse

Victims of rape or sexual assault may turn to alcohol or other substances in an attempt to relieve their emotional suffering. In the U.S., victims of sexual assault report higher levels of psychological distress and the consumption of alcohol than non-victims, in part, to self-medicate.1 Some victims use substances to cope with the reality of what happened to them or to cope with the symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, a common reaction to an extreme situation like sexual assault. However, it is not a healthy way to deal with the trauma of sexual assault and can cause additional problems, such as addiction or dependence, which hinder the healing process.

Survivors of sexual assault or sexual abuse in his or her childhood may abuse drugs to help them “numb out” and push away the painful memories of sexual violence. Victims may also turn to drugs instead of true recovery resources, such as counseling.  Some possible explanations for this are that they may not think that friends or family will understand them, they may not know where to access recovery resources, or they may be embarrassed to talk about what happened.

Friends and family of sexual assault victims may be among the first to recognize the signs of substance abuse. Early recognition increases chances for successful treatment.

Warning signs include:

  • Giving up past activities or hobbies
  • Spending time with new friends who may be a negative influence
  • Declining grades or performance at work
  • Aggressiveness, irritability
  • Forgetfulness
  • Disappearing money or valuables from family and friends
  • Lying
  • Depression or hopelessness
  • Avoiding friends and family
  • Drinking and driving or getting in trouble with the law
  • Suspension from school or work

When compared to non-victims, rape survivors are 3.4 times more likely to use marijuana, 6 times more likely to use cocaine, and 10 times more likely to use other major drugs.2

Finding Treatment

Most substance abusers believe they can stop using drugs on their own, but many who try to stop do not succeed. Research shows that long-term drug use alters brain function and strengthens compulsions to use drugs. This craving continues even after the drug use stops. Because of these ongoing cravings, the most important component of treatment is preventing relapse.

It may be helpful for a survivor to share their experiences and concerns with a qualified service provider (e.g., a counselor or psychologist).4 A general physician can suggest community resources as well as prescribe medications to control cravings and withdrawal symptoms while the user seeks further help.

If you feel you are suffering from substance abuse:

  • Reach out to a trusted friend or family member and ask for help.
  • Contact Safe Helpline to be connected with military and civilian resources in your area.  For help online, visit the Online Helpline or call 877-995-5247 (the phone number is the same inside the U.S. or via the Defense Switched Network (DSN)).  
  • Contact the free Substance Abuse Treatment Referral Helpline.
    • 1.800.662.HELP (4357)
  • Contact a doctor.
    • Contact your doctor immediately if you are suffering from a cough that won’t go away, fever, continuing feelings of depression, jaundice, mild tremors, leg swelling or increased abdominal girth.
  • Call 911 (inside the U.S.) or go to a hospital’s emergency department immediately if you are suffering from severe abdominal pain, chest pain, rapid heartbeat, severe tremors, numbness, or suicidal thoughts.

Help Someone You Know

If someone you know is suffering from substance abuse:2

  • Contact the free Substance Abuse Treatment Referral Helpline for support and advice on helping your loved one.
    • 1.800.662.HELP (4357)
  • Do not “cover up” for your loved one. It is important that he or she gets the help that they deserve.
  • Choose a time to speak with your loved one when he or she is sober, when both of you are fairly calm, and when you have a chance to talk in private.
  • It is also best to speak to your loved one shortly after a substance-related problem has occurred (like a serious family argument or accident).
  • Gather information in advance about treatment options in your community. If the person is willing to get help, seek help immediately and offer to go with him or her for support.

Additional Resources:

Please note that content on this site does not offer medical advice and Safe Helpline is not a medical expert. If after reading this information you have further questions, please contact a local doctor or hospital.

Footnotes
  1. Interpersonal Violence and Alcohol Policy Briefing. World Health Organization.
    http://www.who.int/entity/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/factsheets/ft_violencealcohol.pdf
  2. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. National Institutes of Health. 2007.
    http://www.niaaa.nih.gov/
  3. National Mental Health Information Center: Center for Mental Health Services. United States Department of Health and Human Services – Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2009.
    http://www.samhsa.gov/
  4. World Health Organization. 2002.

Suicide

Many of the devastating emotional and psychological reactions that victims of rape and sexual assault can experience can eventually lead to thoughts of suicide.  There are also many military-specific factors that may increase the risk of suicidal thoughts.1 These factors include: frequent deployments, deployments to hostile environments, exposure to extreme stress, physical or sexual assault while in the service (not limited to women), length of deployments, or service-related injury.

If you are currently thinking about suicide, please reach out for help.

Warning signs include:1,2

  • Talking about or threatening to hurt or kill oneself
  • Looking for ways to kill oneself by seeking access to firearms, available pills, or other means
  • Talking or writing about death more than usual
  • Feeling hopeless
  • Feeling rage or uncontrolled anger or seeking revenge
  • Acting reckless or engaging in risky activities – seemingly without thinking
  • Feeling trapped – like there’s no way out
  • Increasing alcohol or drug use
  • Withdrawing from friends, family, and society
  • Feeling anxious, agitated, or unable to sleep or sleeping all the time
  • Experiencing dramatic mood changes
  • Seeing no reason for living or having no sense of purpose in life
  • Giving away treasured possessions
  • Start preparing for death, which might mean making a will and/or taking care of tax and/or legal issues
  • Talking about suicide directly
  • Talking about suicide indirectly
    • Comments like “Things would be better if I wasn’t here,” “I just wish I could die,” “I just want to go to sleep and never wake up,” can be indirect clues that someone is thinking about suicide.

If you are having suicidal thoughts:1,2

  • Call 911 (inside the U.S.) or go to the hospital
    • If you have already taken steps to harm yourself or feel that you can’t stop yourself from committing suicide, call 911 (inside the U.S.) or go to the emergency room.
    • Tell the person on the phone or the front desk at the emergency room that you are suicidal.
  • Contact Safe Helpline to be connected with military and civilian resources in your area.  For help online, visit the Online Helpline or call 877-995-5247 (the phone number is the same inside the U.S. or via the Defense Switched Network (DSN)).
  • Call the National Veterans Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 800-273-TALK (8255) at any time (Veterans press 1).
    • The counselors there can talk to you about ways to resolve the situation that has made you think about suicide and can connect you with resources to help you.
  • Reach out to friends, family or someone you trust.  Let them know that you are going through a rough time.
  • Find a doctor, counselor or therapist who can help you figure out how to resolve your situation
  • Get rid of the means
    • If you have been thinking about committing suicide and you have obtained the means to commit suicide, please get rid of it. If you have a gun, give it to someone you trust. If you have pills, flush them down the toilet.

If someone you know is having suicidal thoughts:1,2

  • Contact Safe Helpline to be connected with military and civilian resources in your area.  For help online, visit the Online Helpline or call 877-995-5247 (the phone number is the same inside the U.S. or via the Defense Switched Network (DSN)).
  • Call the National Veterans Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 800-273-TALK (8255) at any time (Veterans press 1).  You can call this number even if you are not suicidal. The counselor will be able to work with you to help you help the person you’re concerned about.
  • Take his/her words seriously.
  • Be willing to listen and allow them to express their feelings freely.
  • Get involved, become available, and show interest and support.
  • Don’t judge.
  • Don’t act shocked – this will put distance between you.
  • Don’t be sworn to secrecy – seek support.
  • Don't debate whether suicide is right or wrong, and don’t lecture on the value of life.
  • Avoid comments that dismiss the suicidal person, like:
    • ”Things can’t be that bad."
    • ”You’re just talking about suicide.”
    • ”You wouldn’t really do that.”
  • Be direct by talking openly and matter-of-factly about suicide and ask direct questions.
  • Asking about suicidal thoughts will not make someone commit suicide.
  • Ask, “Are you thinking about suicide?”
  • Ask if they have a plan for how they would commit suicide and the means to carry out the plan.
  • If they are planning to commit suicide and they have a plan and the means to carry out the plan, you should get help for this person as quickly as possible - call 911 (inside the U.S.) or take them to the emergency room.
    • Try not to leave them alone.
    • You can also remove the means to commit suicide, but only if you can do it safely.
  • If they are not planning to commit suicide immediately, offer support.
    • Work with the person to figure out alternative ways to resolve the situation.
    • You can also offer practical help by giving them hotline numbers, finding support groups, or giving them rides to appointments.
    • Follow up by calling or visiting to see how they’re doing and whether or not things are improving.

Additional Resources:

National Suicide Prevention Lifeline
National Suicide Prevention Lifeline - Veterans
Toll-Free National Suicide Prevention Lifeline: 800-273-TALK (8255), Veterans press 1
For Hearing and Speech Impaired with TTY Equipment: 800-799-4TTY (4889)

Please note that content on this site does not constitute medical advice and Safe Helpline is not a medical expert. If after reading this information you have further questions, please contact a local doctor or hospital.

Footnotes
  1. Suicide Prevention Lifeline – Veterans - With Help Comes Hope. Web. 29 Sept. 2010.
    http://www.suicidepreventionlifeline.org/Veterans/Default.aspx
  2. RAINN | Rape, Abuse and Incest National Network |. Web. 29 Sept. 2010.
    http://www.rainn.org/index.php

Please note that content on this site does not constitute medical advice and Safe Helpline is not a medical expert. If after reading this information you have further questions, please contact a local doctor or hospital.